Friday, 1 August 2014

Negative feedback loops, Tolerance, Dependency & Withdrawal.

I couldn't find the plot that I was looking for, but this electrical plot is equivalent.
From http://www.tpub.com/neets/book9/37k.htm

eA represents the amount of a substance that perturbs one of the body's negative feedback loops. The amount oscillates between 0V & 100V.

eR represents the effect of the substance on the body. 100V represents maximum effect and -100V represents maximum anti-effect.

The very first time that the substance is taken, there is 100V of effect. As the time-constant of the negative feedback loop starts to "kick-in", the effect diminishes. Just before the substance is discontinued, the effect is only 36.8V. Just after the substance is discontinued, the anti-effect is -63.2V. If the input continues to oscillate between 0V & 100V, the effect & anti-effect eventually become equal in magnitude. This is known as "cycling".

If the substance is applied continuously, the effect diminishes until, at some point, the effect is 0V. When the substance is discontinued, the anti-effect is -100V initially, but diminishes to 0V.

This is analogous to drug tolerance, dependency & withdrawal, where eventually, the user has to take the drug just to feel normal, and discontinuing the drug gives the worst withdrawal symptoms ever, initially. After the drug has been discontinued for a while, the withdrawal symptoms diminish to zero.

The above also applies to supplements that perturb one of the body's Hypothalamic Pituitary NFB loops e.g. the HPA (Adrenal), the HPT (Thyroid) or the HPG (Gonadal) axes, or any other system (as everything in the body is regulated by a negative feedback loop).

This explains why a supplement can work really well at first, then its effect becomes weaker & weaker, until there is no effect at all. The body has compensated for it.

Thursday, 31 July 2014

Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets, by Richard D Feinman and Eugene J Fine.

This is going to be such fun! *evil* *grin*
From http://www.caloriegate.com/the-black-box/9-pictures-that-prove-beyond-a-reasonable-doubt-that-calories-dont-count

From Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets:-

"Conclusion
Emphasis on kinetics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics provides a conceptual framework for understanding the effect of macronutrient composition on maintenance and change of body mass and possibly for analysis of adipocyte metabolism in general. The simple model presented is intended to be consistent with a general shift away from equilibrium thermodynamics and towards a more dynamic analysis of cellular processes."

Sounds plausible. There's only one thing wrong with Feinman et al's article - it's completely wrong.

Consider two rooms:-

Room "A" has an adjustable heater. The heater is adjusted until the room temperature is 20°C.

Room "B" has a radiator, controlled by a wall-stat set to 20°C. The radiator is on, and the room is at 20°C.

We have two rooms of the same size, at the same temperature.

If you plug in & turn on a 2kW fan heater in each room, what happens to the temperature in each room?

Room "A" gets warmer, because there is 2kW more heat power entering it.

Room "B" stays at 20°C, because the wall-stat reduces the heat power from the radiator by 2kW.

The human body stays at 37°C ±3°C, because there's a Negative Feed-Back loop adjusting the heat power produced, via UCP's, thyroid hormones, shivering and heat conservation/wasting behaviours.

∴ Variable heat power generation due to variable Dietary Efficiency doesn't change Eout.


Q.E.D.

EDIT: By request, here's Figure 1 from the above study.

This suggests that fat mass & therefore body weight can increase indefinitely - at maintenance energy intake, due to the effect of insulin on HSL. This, of course, is quite impossible!

From The Energy Balance Equation:-

Change in Body Stores = Ein (corr for digestion) - Eout (BMR/RMR + TEF + TEA + SPA/NEAT)

__BMR/RMR and TEA ∝ body weight
∴ ↑ body weight → ↑ Eout
∴ If Ein = constant, ↑ Eout → ↑ energy deficit and ↑ weight loss.

∴ Figure 1 is completely wrong.

Q.E.D.

The Ketogenic Diet: Uses in Epilepsy and Other Neurologic Illnesses.

Fools claim that I am anti-ketogenic diets. Am I ****! beta-Hydroxybutyric acid has its uses...
From http://www.fuelforthought.co/the-ketogenic-diet-uses-in-epilepsy-and-other-neurologic-illnesses-2/

From The Ketogenic Diet: Uses in Epilepsy and Other Neurologic Illnesses:-

"Inconsistencies in studies attempting to correlate seizure protection with levels of ketone bodies suggest that another mechanism may be involved in the diet’s beneficial effects on seizures. Several mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in ATP production making neurons more resilient in the face of metabolic demands during seizures; altered brain pH affecting neuronal excitability; direct inhibitory effects of ketone bodies or fatty acids on ion channels; and shifts in amino acid metabolism to favor the synthesis of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA."

GABA is an interesting neurotransmitter, as it's the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system.

I know of two other substances that enhance GABA's effects - Alcohol and Benzodiazepines.


In conclusion:

I'm in favour of ketogenic diets under medical supervision, as therapy for neurologic conditions etc.

I'm not in favour of ketogenic diets under lay supervision, as a supposed aid for weight loss.

Tuesday, 29 July 2014

Dietary Carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management. Critical review and evidence base.

Another Bookmarking post.
From http://dgeneralist.blogspot.co.uk/2013/11/the-low-carb-high-fat-diet.html

The study in question is Dietary Carbohydrate restriction as the first approach in diabetes management. Critical review and evidence base. Here are my comments on the 12 points.

Point 1 is wrong. Hyper*emia is the salient feature of T2DM, where * = glucose, TG's, cholesterol, NEFAs, uric acid etc. T2DM is a disease of chronic excess.

LCHF diet↓ Blood glucose & ↓ fasting TG's, but ↑ PP TG's, ↑ LDL-C & ↑ NEFAs. PP TG's are strongly associated with CHD risk.

Point 2: So?

Point 3 is wrong. A caloric deficit is essential, to reverse liver & pancreas ectopic fat accumulation.

Point 4 is misleading. Feinman doesn't distinguish between different types of carbohydrates. Resistant starch (amylose) is beneficial.

Point 5 is moot. Prof. Roy Taylor found that motivation determines adherence. Prof. Roy Taylor's PSMF was adhered to.

Point 6 is correct. Prof. Roy Taylor's PSMF is ~1g Protein/kg Bodyweight, some ω-6 & ω-3 EFAs & veggies for fibre.

Point 7 is misleading. Meta-studies e.g. Siri-Tarino et al gave a null result by including LF studies, also a dairy fat study which had a RR < 1 for increasing sat fat intake.

Point 8 is irrelevant. ↑ Dietary fat ↑ 2-4 hour PP TG's. See Ultra-high-fat (~80%) diets: The good, the bad and the ugly.

Point 9 is partly correct. Microvascular, yes. Macrovascular, no. See my comment on Point 8.

Point 10 is mostly irrelevant. See my comment on Point 8.

Point 11 ignores results obtained with high-starch diets, where the starch is mostly amylose.

Point 12 is misleading. The low-carbohydrate part is fine & dandy. It's the high-fat part that's the problem!

Saturday, 26 July 2014

Some thoughts on the essentiality of dietary carbohydrates.

I didn't know that there's a watch strap called Essentiality. I do, now.
From https://svpply.com/item/3229602/Swatch_Skin_Collection_Silver_Essentiality


This is a book-marking post for thoughts I had in https://www.facebook.com/TheFatEmperor/posts/1442430506020812.

"The human body does not need carbohydrates from an external food source, because it is capable of very precisely and correctly assembling its own amounts of glucose that is needed in very small amounts for auxiliary and specialized functions." - Igor Butorski.

1) It's not very precise. See http://nigeepoo.blogspot.co.uk/2012/04/how-eating-sugar-starch-can-lower-your.html

2) It's not enough to fuel high-intensity exercise. See http://nigeepoo.blogspot.co.uk/2011/02/funny-turns-what-they-arent-and-what.html

3) Using the above argument, the human body does not need saturated fats & monounsaturated fats from an external food source, because it is capable of very precisely and correctly assembling its own amounts of saturated fats & monounsaturated fats (out of carbohydrate) that are needed in very small amounts for auxiliary and specialized functions.

If we only consumed Essential Fatty Acids, Essential Amino Acids, Vitamins, Minerals, Fibre/Fiber, Water & Anutrients, there wouldn't be much to eat. Also, there wouldn't be a source of chemical energy to generate heat energy & mechanical energy. That's what dietary carbohydrates & fats are for.

Respiratory Exchange Ratio/Respiratory Quotient (RER/RQ) varies with carbohydrate & fat intake, as the body preferentially oxidises the fuel that's most readily available.

RER/RQ varies with Exercise Intensity.
Low-intensity exercise results in mostly fats being oxidised.
High-intensity exercise results in mostly carbohydrates being oxidised.
Medium-intensity exercise results in a mixture of fats & carbohydrates being oxidised.

Friday, 25 July 2014

A *very* special dual-fuel car analogy for the human body that I just invented.

The human body is like a very special dual-fuel car.
From http://www.aa1car.com/library/alternative_fuels.htm

In this very special dual-fuel car:-

Glucose is represented by Ethanol, 'cos Ethanol is a carbohydrate, according to Robert Lustig ;-)
Glucose is C6H12O6. Ethanol is C2H6O. 3(C2H6O) = C6H18O3. It's not very close, but it'll do!

Caprylic acid is represented by Octane, 'cos fatty acids are hydrocarbons, don'tcha know? ;-)
Caprylic acid is CH3(CH2)6COOH and Octane is CH3(CH2)6CH3, which is actually pretty close.


Storage depots:

 

Carbohydrates:


For Ethanol, there's a large storage tank (≡ muscle glycogen) and a small storage tank (≡ liver glycogen).
The contents of the large storage tank cannot be used to top-up the small storage tank, but the contents of the small storage tank can be used to top-up the large storage tank. The contents of the small storage tank are used to fuel a generator (≡ HGP) to keep the ECU (≡ brain) working at all times. The contents of the large storage tank are used to fuel the engine.


Fats:


For Octane, there's a large storage tank (≡ subcutaneous fat deposits) and a small storage tank (≡ visceral fat deposits). The contents of the small storage tank are used to produce hormones etc. The contents of the large storage tank are used to fuel the engine.


Substrate Utilisation:


When the car is driven at low speed, the engine burns mostly Octane (≡ RQ=0.7).
When the car is rapidly accelerating or driven at high speed, the engine burns mostly Ethanol (≡ RQ=1).
When the car is being driven intermediately, the engine burns a mixture of Octane & Ethanol.


Overeating/Undereating:

 

Carbohydrates:


If the large Ethanol storage tank becomes full, excess Ethanol goes to the small storage tank.
If the small storage tank becomes full, a gizmo kicks-in and converts excess Ethanol into Octane (≡ DNL).
It also shifts fuel usage of the engine towards Ethanol, to deplete Ethanol as quickly as possible.
Octane accumulating in the small storage tank causes it to malfunction (≡ fatty liver).

Conversely, if the small storage tank becomes nearly empty, it shifts fuel usage of the engine towards Octane, to conserve Ethanol.


Fats:


If the large Octane storage tank becomes full, excess Octane goes to the small storage tank.
If the small storage tank becomes full, it produces too much hormones and the car malfunctions.

Monday, 21 July 2014

Ancel B. Keys' critique of "Diet and coronary thrombosis. Hypothesis and fact, by John Yudkin. The Lancet, 1957."

Ancel B. Keys has come in for a lot of flak recently over alleged "cherry-picking" of data for his 6/7 Countries studies. Here's Keys' critique:- "SUCROSE IN THE DIET AND CORONARY HEART DISEASE" of Dr. John Yudkin's "15 Countries" article.

Keys accuses Yudkin of bias, cherry-picking countries that fit his own hypothesis. The irony.

Here are some plots from Keys' 11 Countries article.
5-Year CHD cases/1,000 men vs Sucrose %E.

5-Year CHD cases/1,000 men vs Sat Fats %E.

Sucrose %E vs Sat Fats %E.

So there you have it.

Saturday, 19 July 2014

Diet and coronary thrombosis. Hypothesis and fact, by John Yudkin. The Lancet, 1957.

Twitter did it again. From http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/heartofthematter/download/Yudkinssugartheory.pdf
This looks like bad news for the fat-lovers.

There's good correlation between Coronary mortality and total fat intake, for countries 15 to 7. For countries 7 to 1, there's no correlation between Coronary mortality and total fat intake, suggesting that other differences (e.g. quality of health-care, social stress, antioxidant status etc) are significant factors.

This looks like bad news for the meat/fowl/fish/cheese/egg-lovers.


This looks like bad news for the sugar-lovers.

Of course, association ≠ causation.
This looks like bad news for rich people.

In conclusion, total fat intake, animal protein intake, sugar intake & annual income are all associated with increased Coronary mortality, over a certain range of values.

Thursday, 17 July 2014

Why do some people have trouble doing things in moderation?

This is related to my previous post.
From http://www.kindredcommunity.com/2013/01/xtreme-eating-awards-2013-extremism-running-amok-at-americas-restaurant-chains/

Some people take low-carbing to an extreme, 'cos if reducing carbohydrate intake has benefits, reducing it to zero must be better. Oy!


We're told that eating 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day is good for us. One patient who was admitted to St George's with malnutrition, had been eating more than 50 portions of fruit and vegetables a day, 'cos if 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day is good for us, 50 portions of fruit and vegetables a day must be better. Oy!


People who are taking the anti-clotting medication Warfarin need to maintain an accurate balance between their warfarin dose and their Vitamin K intake to keep their INR between 2 and 3, as warfarin antagonizes vitamin K1 recycling, depleting active vitamin K1.
"Between 2003 and 2004, the UK Committee on Safety of Medicines received several reports of increased INR and risk of haemorrhage in people taking warfarin and cranberry juice. Data establishing a causal relationship is still lacking, and a 2006 review found no cases of this interaction reported to the FDA; nevertheless, several authors have recommended that both doctors and patients be made aware of its possibility. The mechanism behind the interaction is still unclear." Here's a clue...

From Possible interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice (emphasis, mine):-
"After a chest infection (treated with cefalexin), a man in his 70s had a poor appetite for two weeks and ate next to nothing, taking only cranberry juice as well as his regular drugs (digoxin, phenytoin, and Warfarin). Six weeks after starting cranberry juice he had been admitted to hospital with an INR (international normalised ratio) > 50. Before, his control of INR had been stable. He died of a gastrointestinal and pericardial haemorrhage. He had not taken any over the counter preparations or herbal medicines, and he had been taking his drugs correctly." Cranberry juice contains no Vitamin K. Oy!

"The Committee on Safety of Medicines has received seven other reports through the yellow card reporting scheme about a possible interaction between warfarin and cranberry juice leading to changes in INR or bleeding. In four cases, the increase in INR or bleeding after patients had drunk cranberry juice was less dramatic. In two cases, INR was generally unstable, and in another case INR decreased. Limited information is available about whether patients complied with their treatment in these cases.

Cranberry juice (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is popular and is also used to prevent cystitis. Interaction with warfarin is biologically plausible, because cranberry juice contains antioxidants, including flavonoids, which are known to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes, and warfarin is predominantly metabolised by P450 CYP2C9. The constituents of different brands of cranberry juice may vary, and this might affect their potential for interacting with drugs. Whether the constituents of cranberry juice inhibit CYP2C9 and therefore the metabolism of warfarin or interact in another way needs further investigation. Until then, patients taking warfarin would be prudent to limit their intake of this drink." Oy!

So, one man's inadvertent (his doctor should have warned him about eating next to nothing while taking warfarin) dietary extremism resulted in his own death and the restricted intake of cranberry juice for everybody else taking warfarin. Oy. :-(


P.S. It's about time an alternative to warfarin was found. It's difficult to maintain an accurate balance between warfarin dose and Vitamin K intake.

Wednesday, 16 July 2014

Jumping through hoops, and my Blog List.

I'm seeing a curious thing. The VLC "camp" seems to be "jumping through hoops" to prove a point.
From http://davidbressler.com/2013/08/26/easier-harder/

From Neuron fuel and function (emphasis & formatting, mine):-
"Ketones and lactate do not drive reverse electron flow through complex I. Glucose can. Palmitate certainly can. What you want from a metabolic fuel depends on the remit of your cell types. Neurons within the brain preserve information by their continued existence.

This is best done by burning lactate or ketones. NOT glucose and, of course, not FFAs.

Anyone who claims that glucose is the preferred metabolic fuel of the brain has not though (sic) about what a neuron has to do and what an astrocyte actually does do. Or much about the electron transport chain."

Basically, glucose is bad mmm-kay. Also, anyone who claims that glucose is the preferred metabolic fuel of the brain is a dumb-ass. Damn our livers & kidneys churning out glucose! Are they trying to kill us?

∴ Carbohydrates are bad and must be avoided at all cost! This, of course, is utter nonsense.

Glucose can drive reverse electron flow through complex I. Can means that it's possible. Is it probable?

On a hypercaloric Western diet of excessive crap-in-a-bag/box/bottle, yes.

On a Kitavan diet of ~70%E from tubers, no.

On a diet of Basmati rice & beans, no.

On a diet of whole fruits, no.

See also Another crash and burn on low carb paleo and CrossFit. Enough of the 'carbs are evil' nonsense. Carbphobia is hurting a lot of people.

I have a list of blogs that I read on a regular basis. As a result of the bad science & cherry-picking displayed in various VLC blogs, I have deleted them from my Blog List.

See also Guest post: Denialism as Pseudoscientific Thinking.

Sunday, 13 July 2014

The "I'm a Celebrity... Get Me Out of Here! (losing team)" diet.

This post may be a little "tongue-in-cheek", in places.


I nearly used a certain scene from Blazing Saddles. It would have been much more entertaining.

As I said in Why you really can't outrun your fork:-
"Although I totally support the use of low-carbohydrate/calorie diets for people with insulin resistance or Type 2 diabetes, now that I'm no longer insulin resistant, I can eat natural carbohydrates without any problems.

A medium-sized (orange-fleshed) Sweet Potato takes only 4 minutes to bake in its jacket in a 700W microwave oven. The flesh is moist & sweet, unlike that of a Yam or potato.

I eat the whole thing, including the jacket. It's very filling and I'm still able to lose weight. For active and insulin sensitive people, a Kitavan-style diet is absolutely fine."

In the TV series "I'm a Celebrity... Get Me Out of Here!", there are two teams at the beginning. Members of each team compete against each other, to win food for their respective teams. The winning team gets to eat all sorts of exciting animal produce from "down-under". The losing team gets to eat rice & beans.

By the end of the series, team members (especially the over-fat celebrities) had lost a lot of body-fat. Coincidence? I think not. Combining Long-grain Rice with Beans (set Serving size: to 100g) provides all the Essential Amino Acids and is very filling. How do I know this? Guess!

I never used to like rice (it was always cooked "a l'anglaise"), but adding a squirt of Sweet Chilli Sauce to Basmati rice before cooking, makes it taste great!

Friday, 11 July 2014

Nutritional Ketosis: What is it good for?

I have a video in mind...


Having previously shown you what I look like on a lowish-carbohydrate diet, here are a couple of recent pictures of Jimmy Moore, who's on a very-low-carb, very-high-fat diet (~85%E from fats), a.k.a. Nutritional Ketosis. It involves adding Kerrygold butter to just about everything, even eating sticks of it from a block. I'm not kidding.
I told you I wasn't kidding.

From Google Image Search on "Jimmy Moore" OR "Livin la Vida low carb", images in the last 7 days:-
On 6.7.14.

On 8.7.14.

The only recent footage of Fredrick Hahn, is the following video from the Low Carb Cruise...


To my eyes, Nutritional Ketosis is good for absolutely nothing. Dietary fat can be stored as body fat, in the absence of dietary carbohydrates. Gary Taubes' claim "You can basically exercise as much gluttony as you want, as long as you're eating (only) fat and protein." is pure fantasy, not supported by evidence.

The low protein intake in Nutritional Ketosis, combined with the high serum cortisol that's almost inevitable on this way of eating, results in a loss of muscle mass. I give Nutritional Ketosis a thumbs-down.
 


Summary:-

1) No Energy DeficitNo Weight Loss. There is no Metabolic Advantage to Nutritional Ketosis. See http://www.jbc.org/content/92/3/679.full.pdf

2) Insufficient carbohydrate intake and insufficient protein intake starves the liver & kidneys of gluconeogenic pre-cursors, which raises cortisol, which converts muscle mass into gluconeogenic pre-cursors e.g. Glutamine, Alanine etc. This is standard Biochemistry. No links required.

3) While excess carbohydrates are converted into triglycerides by the liver, excess fats are converted into cholesterol by the liver, which is exported to tissues as LDL-C.

LDL-P ∝ LDL-C. High LDL-P is strongly associated with increased risk factor for CHD. See http://www.lecturepad.org/dayspring/lipidaholics/pdf/LipidaholicsCase291.pdf

CHD is not an inflammation-mediated phenomenon. It's an LDL-P and neovascularisation-mediated phenomenon. See http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3492120/

4) Read Page 10 of https://www.drmcdougall.com/misc/2013nl/feb/pritikinpdf3.pdf, starting from "Could such a cream meal precipitate an angina attack because the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is lowered?" It's an actual trial on humans with clogged coronary arteries. It's not a hypothesis.

5) Chronically-raised cortisol causes aggressive behaviour (cortisol is a stress hormone) and adversely affects short-term memory storage in the Hippocampus. See http://evolutionarypsychiatry.blogspot.co.uk/search?q=cortisol

6) Eskimos, Sami, Masai, Samburu, Tokelauans etc, get ~50% of their total energy from fats. There are zero populations that get ≥80%E from fats.


Update 25th July 2014: I appear to have rustled Fredrick Hahn's Jimmies. See https://www.facebook.com/FredrickHahn/posts/10152227780827864

I can safely state that Fredrick Hahn is a liar (I am not poking fun at anybody and I have only blocked him (not his followers) from posting here, for a flagrant breach of my Moderation Policy on his first attempt at commenting), and intellectually-dishonest (for repeatedly mis-quoting me, and using other logical fallacies). He posted the above post knowing that, as I had blocked him on Facebook, I wouldn't see it. I only learned of its existence after a friend PM'ed me on Facebook Messenger. He instructed his "followers" to leave comments here and then accuse me of lying about white-listing, back on his page, because their comments didn't appear immediately. He's a real piece of work! From ABOUT ME:-

Moderation Policy: Comments from first-time & untrusted commenters are moderated ← (click for details). Please be patient. Now that I have a Smart Phone, I can publish your comments during the day when I'm away from my lap-top, but I prefer to type replies on my lap-top. Comments from anonymous commenters, containing links in any form, are deleted.

This is a function of Disqus, as it's impossible to retrospectively white-list a commenter who's never commented here before. There appears to be a severe lack of cognitive function in these people. I really can't think why that is ;-)

Why am I being so hard on Jimmy Moore and Fredrick Hahn? I don't know these people personally.

1) These people are making money out of peddling pseudoscience.

2) These people meet all the criteria in Guest post: Science versus Pseudoscience and have created an alternative science, where sky-high LDL cholesterol, sky-high LDL-P and sky-high postprandial TG's are not risk factors for CHD, but are either harmless or beneficial.

Thursday, 10 July 2014

Only me! You don't want to be doing logical fallacies like that!

There can be only one video...


Here's only me on 9.7.14, at the Trafalgar Inn Aldershot, just before karaoke.
Only me! 9.7.14.

EDIT: And here's only me on 10.7.14, at the Lion Brewery Ash, just before the jam session.
Only me! 10.7.14.

From Here are the results after one month on my high fat, lower protein, SAME carbohydrate intake:-

Fredrick Hahn said...
"I've said this to Nigel before Tom Traynor and he insists he doesn't want muscles.

But to be fair to Nigel, he can indeed be 100% correct and at the same time be a blubbery, weak, mess of a man. You can be a great lung cancer doctor and smoke..."

Tom Traynor said...
"NK LOOKS terrible!--soft, fat and weak--and drum roll: "Doesn't want any muscle". So he is an absolute FOOL, too (loss of muscle mass predicting mortality--among MANY other facets). That's all the "science" I need."

What I actually wrote:-
Nigel Kinbrum said...
"Considering my age (59.25), I'm in pretty good condition. I'm 6' tall and weigh 198lbs. I have *no* desire to have big muscles or a 6-pack. Each to their own."

Misquoting, or quoting out of context is a Straw man fallacy. Saying that a physical characteristic invalidates knowledge is an Ad Hominem fallacy. In addition, saying that a lack of relevant qualifications invalidates knowledge is an inverse Argument from authority fallacy. Repeated use of logical fallacies is intellectual dishonesty.

Wednesday, 9 July 2014

Why you really can't outrun your fork.

Hat-tip to Yoni Freedhoff.
From http://www.blacksheepfitness.co.uk/you-cant-outrun-your-fork.html

See Effect of school-based physical activity interventions on body mass index in children: a meta-analysis.
"Meta-analysis showed that BMI did not improve with physical activity interventions (weighted mean difference -0.05 kg/m2, 95% confidence interval -0.19 to 0.10). We found no consistent changes in other measures of body composition."

Some people believe that if going to the gym isn't making them lose weight, they're not exercising hard enough. Chronically over-exercising can chronically raise serum cortisol, which makes the kidneys retain water, causing a stall in weight-loss, as well as causing raised fasting blood glucose, irritability, poor memory and a slower metabolic rate, due to the reduced conversion of thyroxine into tri-iodothyronine.

Don't over-exercise!

A healthy body weight is made in the kitchen, not the gym. Buy produce, cook it and eat it!

Although I totally support the use of low-carbohydrate/calorie diets for people with insulin resistance or Type 2 diabetes, now that I'm no longer insulin resistant, I can eat natural carbohydrates, without any problems.

A medium-sized (orange-fleshed) Sweet Potato takes only 4 minutes to bake in its jacket in a 700W microwave oven. The flesh is moist & sweet, unlike that of a Yam or potato.

I eat the whole thing, including the jacket. It's very filling and I'm still able to lose weight. For active and insulin sensitive people, a Kitavan-style diet is absolutely fine.