Friday, 19 December 2014

Variations in weight change for a given Calorie change - An Engineer's Perspective.

Another techie post, inspired by Insulin Doesn't Regulate Fat Mass. Consider the inverting amplifier using an Op-Amp, below:-
From HERE

As the amplifier is inverting (i.e. a ↑ input on Vin results in a ↓ output on Vout), the feedback from Vout via R2 opposes Vin via R1 at the - terminal of the Op-Amp.

If R1 = R2 and Vin changes from 0V to 1V, the change in V- (the voltage on the - terminal of the Op-Amp) varies with A (the magnitude of the Op-Amp gain) as follows*:-

A_____________Change in V-(V)
_____________0
1,000,000_____~0.000001
1,000_________~0.001
100___________~0.01
10____________~0.08
8_____________0.1
5_____________~0.14
3_____________0.2
2_____________0.25
1_____________~0.33
0_____________0.5

As the body operates on biochemical principles, slopes of input/output transfer functions aren't steep at their steepest points. E.g.


Therefore, the gains in the various parts of the Leptin "adipostat" NFB loop are not very high. Therefore, there will be a significant variation in weight change vs Calorie change, and there will be significant variations in the variation due to loop gain variations from person to person.

Insulin Resistance makes the slopes of  the above input/output transfer functions shallower, reducing the gain in the system. This increases the variation in weight change vs Calorie change. For ways to reduce Insulin Resistance, see Insulin Resistance: Solutions to problems.

*In case anyone thinks that I've made the numbers up, here's the maths:-
Current in/out of the - terminal of the Op-Amp = 0.
∴ IR1 = IR2
I set R1 = R2 to keep the maths simple. By Ohm's Law, V = I * R.
∴ VR1 = VR2
With a 0V input:-
All currents & voltages = 0.

With a 1V input:-
VR1 = 1 - V-
VR2 = V- - Vout.  As Vout is negative, - Vout is positive.
- Vout = A * V-
∴ VR2 = V- + (A * V-)
∴ 1 - V- = V- + (A * V-)
Rearranging:-
1 = (2 * V-) + (A * V-)
Dividing both sides by V-:-
(1/V-) = 2 + A
∴ V- = 1/(2 + A)

Monday, 10 November 2014

Is the world getting better, or worse?

A few days ago, on Facebook, the following graphic caught my eye.
From http://www.businessinsider.com/the-world-is-becoming-a-better-place-2014-10#ixzz3HumR3IGy

Average life expectancy in England in 1843 was only 40 years. According to How the Mid-Victorians Worked, Ate and Died., those who survived being born, accidents & infections in the first five years of life lived to a ripe old age, despite no modern drugs or other medical technology.

This suggests that mortality between the ages of zero to five was ~50% back then. Yikes.

Click the link in the caption to see other ways in which the world has got better.

Wednesday, 5 November 2014

Fibromyalgia: It's the food, again! (probably).

From http://stickmancommunications.co.uk/Keyring-Card-Fibromyalgia

Serendipity strikes again! On Facebook, I saw https://www.facebook.com/PaleoDietNewZealand/posts/763653980371516 . That linked to Fibromyalgia and non‑celiac gluten sensitivity: a description with remission of fibromyalgia.

For people unfamiliar with scientific terms, here are some definitions:-
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: A reaction to gluten, not due to Celiac (Coeliac in the U.K.) Disease.
Remission: (medicine) An abatement or lessening of the manifestations of a disease.

So, is Gliadorphin-7 (formed during the digestion of gluten) to blame?
Probably.

Could Beta CasoMorphin-7 (formed during the digestion of A1 cow's milk) also be a problem?
Possibly.

Is Increased/Excessive Intestinal Permeability allowing the above large molecules to pass through insufficiently tight junctions?
Definitely, maybe.

Is there really no cure for Fibromyalgia? It's possible to tighten-up insufficiently tight junctions. Insufficiently tight junctions can be caused by:-

1. Insufficient sun exposure, causing hypovitaminosis D. See http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=%22Vitamin+D%22[All+Fields]+AND+%22tight%20junction%22+AND+hasabstract[text]

2. Excessive consumption of oils high in polyunsaturated fatty acids. See Dietary Fat Can Modulate Intestinal Tight Junction Integrity.

3. Excessive consumption of Wheat. See http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=%22Wheat%22[All+Fields]+AND+%22tight+junction%22+AND+hasabstract[text]

4. Excessive exercise. See Shedding Some Light on the Leaky Gut <> Exercise Connection. Plus: 20+ Things You Should or Shouldn't Do to Protect and Restore the Integrity of Your Intestinal Wall.

See also Physiology and Immunology of Digestion.

And finally...
If a science person ever tells you "Increased/Excessive Intestinal Permeability a.k.a. "Leaky gut" just doesn't exist because, you know, I'm a scientist.", point out that it's an Appeal from authority fallacy, and demand that they provide high quality evidence to support their statement.

Because, you know, I'm a retired Electronic Engineer! :-)

Monday, 20 October 2014

A bijou rant-ette: Robbing bastards and Misapplication of laws.

The title of this post is based on The dirty, robbing bastards!

1. Robbing bastards.


Once upon a time, I used to enjoy driving. Maybe getting older has made me less tolerant, but I now hate driving, for several reasons.

1. Increased road congestion, increasing journey times and frustration.

2. Slow-coaches driving well below the speed limit, increasing journey times and frustration.

3. P.I.G.S (People Incapable of Giving Signals). I'm not a %^&*ing mind-reader!

4. P.P.P.R.P. (People with Piss-Poor Road Positioning), obstructing the road when they're manoeuvring, causing delays and frustration.

5. P.P.P.L.D. (People with Piss-Poor Lane Discipline), causing me stress, especially on roundabouts.

6. "Chelsea Tractors" and other large vehicles, obstructing the road when they're manoeuvring, causing delays and frustration.

7. Cyclists wobbling from side to side, or riding two abreast, obstructing the road, causing delays and frustration.

8. P.P.P.H.A. (People with Piss-Poor Headlight Alignment). High headlight aim fails the MOT test. Therefore, vehicles with high headlight aim are technically unroadworthy. Why are so many unroadworthy vehicles on the road and why do the traffic police do nothing about it? Also, H.I.D. (High-Intensity Discharge) headlights. When sitting in a Mazda MX-5, my eyes are only 3'6" (I measured it) above the ground, making me very susceptible to being dazzled by oncoming headlights that are aimed too high. I find H.I.D. (High Intensity Discharge) headlights particularly dazzling. Being dazzled causes me stress, as I can't see properly.

I've been emphasising the words frustration and stress, as these raise levels of the stress hormone cortisol. Chronic frustration and stress while driving chronically elevate cortisol, which is bad for health for several reasons. See Cushing's syndrome.

Here's a video I shot, using the camera on my Samsung Galaxy SII phone, mounted on the driver's door window with the lens 3'6" above the ground. The video is shaky, due to a combination of uneven roads and very firm suspension. When the headlights flare-out on the video, it means that the sensor in the camera is being overloaded. Ditto my eyes. I speeded it up to shorten the duration, and added an appropriate soundtrack, using Windows Live Movie Maker. Enjoy!


When I can't take being dazzled any longer, I lower the visor to the point where it blocks light from oncoming headlights. This makes seeing high-up objects (e.g. road signs and traffic lights) difficult.

9. Reading Borough Council. Here's a video I'd rather not have been in (published with permission).


Salient points from the above video:-

1. Reading Borough Council are enforcing Bus Lanes at all hours. Where I live, Bus Lanes are only enforced during peak hours, which is reasonable, as Bus Lanes allow Public Transport to travel freely on roads that become congested during peak hours. Sarcasm Alert! Note the heavy traffic congestion in the non-Bus Lane at 01:32 in the middle of the night.

2. The road surface is shiny, due to surface water. There's quite a high reflection coefficient, when viewed from the high angle of incidence of the Bus Lane enforcement camera. As the angle of incidence decreases, the reflection coefficient increases. At low angles of incidence, such as my view of the road from 3'6" above the ground, the reflection coefficient is nearly 100%.

3. There's an oncoming vehicle with bright headlights. I would have had the visor down, so I wouldn't have seen the red traffic light, until I was so close that it was visible around the side of the visor.

See also:-
Bus lane fine in Reading - PistonHeads.
Vastern Road Reading bus lane - FightBack Forums
Is Reading Anti Motorist?

Reading and I have history!

My first encounter was with Reading Borough Council and was on 7.11.2009. It involved the Parking Permit below (Reg. No. deleted):-

Reading Borough Council tried to prosecute me for non-display of the above permit. I appealed on the grounds that Reading Borough Council didn't provide a self-adhesive strip to stick the flimsy bit of paper to the windscreen (as is the case with virtually all car park tickets), and that their flimsy bit of paper had blown off the dashboard of my Mazda MX-5. My appeal was accepted. That's the only time I've come out on top with Reading Borough Council.

My second encounter was with Thames Valley Police and was on 4.10.2010 at 23:56. It involved the (Sarcasm Alert!) Vastern Road revenue generation scheme.
See also:-
SPEEDING DRIVERS - Get Reading
Positioning of "Safety" speed cameras - WhatDoTheyKnow

The two lanes each way dual-carriageway was virtually deserted at 23:56, so virtually every driver that drove down that road at that time (about one a minute) was prosecuted for exceeding 30mph.

"It wouldn't be very profitable if everyone stuck to the speed limit" Kate Smith, Thames Valley Police.
No shit, Sherlock! The main indication that the road has a 30mph speed limit are lamp-posts. The West end of the road is part residential. The East end of the road has offices on the North side and a trading estate on the South side, both closed at night. When a motorist comes across a virtually deserted two lanes each way dual-carriageway in the middle of the night, there are two possible responses:-

1. Oh, look! A two lanes each way dual-carriageway with lamp-posts. I'd better drive at ≤30mph.
2. Oh, look! A two lanes each way dual-carriageway. National speed limit (70mph) applies.

I'm guessing that 2. is the usual (though incorrect) response. Why is the 30mph speed limit enforced in the middle of the night down the East end, when the offices and trading estate are closed and the road is virtually deserted?

Thought Experiment in Logic: If Reading Borough Council was concerned about the 25 injuries (1 serious) that occurred in the previous 3 years, they could have done more than just having one of THESE (seen on a recent stroll up Vastern Road using Google Street View) e.g. by adding THESE (as per the A325 in Farnborough) and THESE (as per the A325 in Farnborough). However, that would result in fewer drivers speeding and a drop in revenue from speeding fines.

There have been other encounters (e.g. the GATSO on a downhill road, where speed creeps up unless the speedometer is regularly checked, also police enforcement of a 40mph speed limit on the three lanes each way dual-carriageway section of the A33 at 00:23), but I won't bore you with the details.


2. Misapplication of laws.


Laws are intended to deter people from causing harm, or punish people who cause harm. I've noticed a tendency for organisations to use laws to extract money from people, and cover their own backs. I received a 61 page evidence pack from Reading Borough Council for a case before the Traffic Penalty Tribunal, to which I am taking them, as they refused to accept my mitigating circumstances for driving in the Bus Lane (poor visibility and excessive reflection from a wet road when viewed from 3'6" feet above the ground). Most of the evidence pack was to show that Reading Borough Council met all laws with their street and road signs. They also informed me that Mazda met all laws in the design and manufacture of my car, therefore the offence must be entirely my fault. Their evidence pack also contained a straw man fallacy, plus the implication that I nearly went through the red traffic light due to driving at "such a speed".

Some readers will think that I'm a careless driver who's trying to justify my carelessness. When I drive, I have priorities. They are as follows, followed by results achieved since passing my driving test in August 1979:-

1. DON'T HIT PEOPLE/CATS/DOGS/FOXES/DEER/BADGERS ETC. Result: Number hit = 0.
2. DON'T HIT OTHER CARS. Result: Number hit at ≥5mph = 0. Number hit at ≤5mph = 3. Number hit requiring exchange of details = 1.
3. DON'T HIT HARD OBJECTS. Result: Number hit at ≥5mph = 0. Number hit at ≤5mph = ~3.
4. ANYTHING ELSE.

Sunday, 12 October 2014

A tale of the unexpected & an analogy.

The tale.


A friend had a faulty lap-top mains adaptor. It was one of these:-
From http://www.pchub.com/uph/laptop/46-33769-9191/Toshiba-Common-Item-Toshiba-AC-Adapter-Laptop.html

I offered to fault-find it. I measured the output voltage with my multimeter.

The output voltage was 0V.

I felt the lead where it exited the connector. It didn't feel right, so I cut the connector off & stripped-off some insulation. Lo and behold, the inner conductor (it was co-axial cable) was broken. I prepared the conductors, tinned them, soldered them and powered the adaptor, with a sense of impending triumph.

The output voltage was 0V.

I tested the continuity from conductors to connector. That's when I discovered that there was a short-circuit between the inner and outer conductors. I snipped-off the connector and confirmed that it was the connector that was short-circuited, not the adaptor or cable. I fitted a replacement connector and powered the adaptor, with a sense of impending triumph.

The output voltage was 0V.

At this point, I decided that the adapter was Beyond Economic Repair and advised the friend to buy a new one, which subsequently worked perfectly.

So, how did the adapter get to have not one, not two but THREE faults on it? It turned out that the lead had been yanked sideways, which bent the connector. The friend had straightened the connector with pliers (!). This short-circuited the connector, resulting in an internal fuse blowing in the adapter. The friend then "jiggled" the connector in the socket, in a vain attempt to make it work. This broke the inner conductor of the co-axial cable.

The analogy.

 

Some health problems are multi-factorial. Fixing only one, but not all of the problems, results in not fixing the problem. So, if you try "A" and there's no improvement, either "A" isn't one of the problems, or "B", "C"......"Z" need fixing, too.

This post was inspired by Effects of 12 weeks high dose vitamin D3 treatment on insulin sensitivity, beta cell function, and metabolic markers in patients with type 2 diabetes and vitamin D insufficiency - a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

Taking an effective dose of Vitamin D3 for a reasonable length of time didn't make a significant difference to insulin sensitivity or beta cell function. It did for me, as my only problem was Vitamin D insufficiency. I got lucky.

You are *never* going to guess what happened on Saturday night - Part 2.

In You are *never* going to guess what happened on Saturday night, I got to sing with a band called Mirrorball at The Falkners Arms in Fleet. I think that you can probably now guess what happened last night!
"When you're gone", by Bryan Adams & Melanie Chisholm
"Summer of '69" by Bryan Adams.
More "Summer of '69".

If I'd known that a friend was going to be there with her camera, I would have worn smarter clothes!

Thursday, 25 September 2014

Calcium shift: An interesting hypothesis.

More serendipity! Billy the k left a comment that piqued my curiosity.
From http://www.health-heart.org/acceuil.htm The atheroma 'junk' in the media is cholesterol + calcium in older people.

From Aging and calcium as an environmental factor. (emphasis mine)
"The consequences of calcium deficiency might thus include not only osteoporosis, but also arteriosclerosis and hypertension due to the increase of calcium in the vascular wall, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and senile dementia due to calcium deposition in the central nervous system, and a decrease in cellular function, because of blunting of the difference in extracellular-intracellular calcium, leading to diabetes mellitus, immune deficiency and others.

I highlighted amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in red, as many Facebook friends have been having buckets of water & ice cubes tipped over themselves to raise money for research into this fatal condition.

So, what prevents & reverses migration of calcium from hard tissues to soft tissues?
Clue: It carboxylates osteocalcin in bone matrix Gla proteins. Yes, it's Vitamin K2.

See also Calcium, parathyroids and aging.

ItsTheWoo, Me, and Sheeple.

This post is about http://itsthewooo.blogspot.co.uk/2014/09/so-i-had-to-ban-nigel.html
From http://campvolant.com/2013/11/11/be-that-man-travail-en-cours/ I am "That man", where diet & nutrition is concerned.

My cunning plan worked! I needed an excuse to never have to visit that cluster-f*ck of a blog ever again, so I gradually increased the level of (well-deserved, may I add) snark & insults, in response to ItsTheWoo's insults to me, and misrepresentations about me, until she did what I wanted - i.e. banned me forever. Thank you!

In http://nigeepoo.blogspot.com/2014/08/dear-itsthewoo-how-do-you-do.html, I rebutted & debunked ItsTheWoo's strawman fallacies about me. I thought that she was merely ignorant of me, so I sent her a Friend Request on Facebook, which she accepted. I thought that if she knew more about me, she wouldn't use so many strawman fallacies.

Well, that was a complete waste of time! I took the opportunity to get to know her better, and what did I learn? She appears to be completely self-obsessed, and is mainly concerned with being as popular as possible, with as many followers as possible. To achieve this requires her to be constantly zany & "off the wall", with regular melt-downs to keep the troops entertained. She also likes nail varnish!

I don't actually have anything against her, other than her constant misrepresentations about me, which she's taken to an entirely new level in her latest melt-down.

After asking her pertinent questions in a friendly way, I ascertained that she was probably urinating excessive amounts of magnesium. See Magnesium and the Brain: The Original Chill Pill.
"Finally, magnesium is sequestered and wasted via the urine in times of stress."
This can create a vicious circle, whereby magnesium deficiency increases anxiety, which further increases stress. ItsTheWoo was complaining that dietary protein was making her too "wired", so I suggested that she increase her magnesium intake, and collect 24 hours of urine for analysis. I didn't even ask her to stick a needle in her arm for a blood test (as serum magnesium means nothing).

You'd think that I'd asked her to sell her mother from the way she carried on, making excuse after excuse to not wee into a 5 Litre container. I'm done with her, now. She obviously isn't interested in finding out the underlying reason why she has to eat a ketogenic diet all the time. She admitted that she's spent 12 years on a ketogenic diet, going from one supplement to the next, when tolerance develops. She's even tried Lithium. She's currently faffing about with a supplement called Kratom.

I'm sticking to Epsom Salts. It's cheap, it works and if you do overdose on it, you get a good run for your money! :-D As magnesium is a substance found naturally in the body, tolerance never develops.

The "Sheeple" part of the title is referring to ItsTheWoo's followers, who are no doubt slagging me off. Number of f*cks given = 0. It's interesting how she's built up a large following of mostly feeble-minded people who can't think for themselves, and who praise her for every post she writes, no matter how incorrect it might be.

I don't blog to be popular. I blog to help people, with accurate & up-to-date information about ways to treat nasty medical conditions that impair people's lives.

Hopefully, my next post will be back to business as usual. There's something big coming, and this time it's got nothing to do with Gluten or A1 Casein!

EDIT: As a result of the 191(!) comments to this post, here are some thought experiments in logic:-

Q1. If Woo's followers don't give a f*ck about me, why post about banning me?
A1. Because Woo is an attention-whore.

Q2. Woo could have shut me up by saying that she'd already had a 24-hour urine test for excessive Mg excretion. She didn't. Why?
A2. Because in 12 years of suffering mental issues, she's never had a had a 24-hour urine test for excessive Mg excretion.

Q3. Woo could have shut me up and shown that she's right and I'm wrong, by taking a 24-hour urine test for excessive Mg excretion. She didn't. Why?
A3. Because she knows that she's wrong and I'm right, because a 24-hour urine test for excessive Mg excretion would show excessive Mg excretion.

Q4. Why does Woo insist that a 24-hour urine test for excessive Mg excretion is worthless (it isn't)?
A4. Because EITHER she's worried that she'll lose her "shtick" of nuttiness and will lose followers (in which case, she's playing you all for fools and should be avoided), OR she's scared of change, due to mental illness (in which case, she's to be pitied and should be avoided).

Please discuss the above statements without deflecting onto irrelevancies e.g. my Aspergic tendencies. Yes, I admit that I have Aspergic tendencies. I've also admitted to being a nerd (click Nerds). So shoot me ;-)

Blindly following someone & believing everything that they say without ever verifying facts is dangerous, and can lead to the situation depicted in the picture at the top of this post (Godwin's Law alert). The opposite (total cynicism) is also unhealthy.

People need to do research of their own, or just read my blog, as I've already done loads of research. If your health problem isn't mentioned anywhere in my blog (check the labels first), please email me (there's a disguised email link in my "About me" section) and ask. I love doing research, as I never know what I'm going to discover, and I occasionally stumble across something really important by accident, as my recent posts on Constipation/IHD/Type 1 Diabetes/Schizophrenia/Autism, Hyperinsulinaemia, Age-related Macular Degeneration, Rheumatoid Arthritis & Calcium Shift have shown.

If I've been of help to you, please tell any family members or friends who are suffering from any conditions that are impairing their life. My suggestions must always be checked by someone's GP first, in case of contraindications with other medical conditions or medications that I don't know about. My suggestions must always be used as adjuncts to, NOT replacements for, someone's existing medication(s).

If symptoms improve, people should negotiate with their GP for a reduction in the dose of their medication(s), if their medication(s) has/have undesirable effects (e.g. bad side-effects, or a need for further medications such as PPI's like Omeprazole to reduce stomach acidity when taking NSAID's like Aspirin or Naproxen).

Sunday, 21 September 2014

A "discussion" with Dr. Garth Davis M.D.

I put "discussion" in quotes, for reasons which will become obvious.
The Pyramid of Disagreement. You should be using the top 3 levels at all times.

I've written this because Dr. Davis has blocked me from leaving comments on his Facebook page, and I really need to reply to his last reply to me.

See https://www.facebook.com/drgarth/posts/834305339923709
I was acutely aware as an omnivore, of "walking into the lion's den", by posting a dissenting comment on a vegan's thread, but it was necessary as I had evidence of harm of vegan diets. The evidence on Denise Minger's teeth is supported by her own blog. The evidence on Jay Dinshah's fatal heart attack at the age of 66 is supported by a YouTube video by Dr Michael Greger, the vegan M.D. Dr Greger's video showed evidence of other harms caused by vegan diets that were lacking in vegan DHA & Vitamin B12.

EDIT: Dr. Davis has deleted all of my comments. However, he hasn't deleted his replies to them.



It's impossible to prove a hypothesis, even with n=1,000,000, as the 1,000,001th subject could be the "Black Swan" that disproves it. On the other hand, it only takes 1 "Black Swan" to disprove it. Therefore, n=1 evidence of harm is sufficient to disprove a hypothesis that something is harmless. See Falsifiability.

I provided n=2 evidence of harm.

Dr Davis' last comment to me:-
" Nigel Kinbrum really? You are giving me a n of 2. There is no data that vegans teeth fall out. If she was vitamin K deficient then she was eating a crappy diet lacking greens. It so stupid it's just silly. I also laugh at the idea that authority is some how bad. I have written a book with thousands of references. I give lectures on the topic and have treated thousands of patients yet Denise knows more than me. Silly."

My reply:-
1. As stated above, an n of 2 is double the n needed to disprove your hypothesis that there is no evidence of harm for vegan diets. I'd already pointed that out to you in a previous comment that you've since deleted.

2. I said that Denise's teeth were disintegrating. I didn't say that they fell out. That's a strawman fallacy.

3. Greens contain phylloquinone (Vitamin K1), not menatetrenone (Vitamin K2). Only Vitamin K2 carboxylates osteocalcin in MGP's. The only vegan source of Vitamin K2 is Nattō, a.k.a. pungent beans in a snot sauce.

4. See 3. Denise Minger was not eating a "crappy diet". That's an extremely insulting & uninformed comment for a medical professional to make about someone.

5. I never claimed that authority is bad. When you say "I am an expert in "X", therefore I am never wrong about "X".", that's an "Appeal to authority" fallacy. Jeez!

6. See 5. I never claimed that Denise Minger knows more than you. That's another strawman fallacy.


So, there you have it. Comments will only be approved if they meet my Moderation Policy. As long as I am blocked from commenting on Dr. Davis' Facebook page, Dr. Davis is blocked from commenting on my blog.

Saturday, 20 September 2014

Rheumatoid Arthritis: It's the food!

I had an email query about Rheumatoid Arthritis, so off to PubMed I went.
From http://www.webmd.com/rheumatoid-arthritis/ss/slideshow-ra-overview

I found Controlled trial of fasting and one-year vegetarian diet in rheumatoid arthritis.

"Fasting is an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, but most patients relapse on reintroduction of food."
This suggests that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an ongoing process, triggered by something that's consumed.

"After an initial 7-10 day subtotal fast, they were put on an individually adjusted gluten-free vegan diet for 3.5 months. The food was then gradually changed to a lactovegetarian diet for the remainder of the study."
Are you thinking what I'm thinking? I'm thinking Gliadorphin-7, as per Wheat, Constipation, Ischaemic Heart Disease, Type 1 Diabetes, Schizophrenia and Autism.

This suggests that RA is caused by peptide chains passing through loose "tight junctions" in the gut, triggering an (inappropriate) autoimmune response. For ways to improve gut integrity, see Cow's milk, Schizophrenia and Autism.

BCM-7 can be avoided by drinking A2 milk. Most cheeses are made from A1 milk, so should be avoided. Swiss cheeses like Gruyère and Emmental are probably made from A2 milk, so suck 'em and see.

To reduce inflammation in joints, consuming oily fish may help, as an adjunct to prescribed anti-inflammatory medications.

Friday, 19 September 2014

Why (LDL particle) size matters.

Having gone through the math(s) with several people, I thought I'd stick it in a blog post for posterity.
I know that this is a diagram of a chylomicron, but bear with me!

Cholesterol synthesised in the liver is exported in LDL particles. The more cholesterol that's synthesised, the more particles there need to be to carry it.

∴ LDL-P (particle number) ∝ LDL-C (total amount of cholesterol)

The particles are roughly spherical with a very thin wall (consisting of a phospholipid mono-layer, the yellow wiggly lines with a green end bit in the above diagram).

Volume of a sphere = 4/3 * π * r3, where r = half the diameter.

If there's a 10% reduction in LDL particle size, the volume reduces to 0.729, relative to the original size. Therefore, to carry the same amount of cholesterol requires 1/0.729 = 1.37 times more particles, which is a 37% increase in the number of LDL particles, relative to the original size.

∴ LDL-P (particle number) ∝ 1/LDLsize3

As it's LDL particle number that determines the infiltration of LDL cholesterol into the media of artery walls, it's advisable to keep cholesterol synthesis to a minimum by keeping fat intake to a reasonable level * (i.e. not Nutritional Ketosis level) and keeping LDL particle size to a maximum by keeping sugars & fast starches intake to a reasonable level*.

Before someone asks, what I mean by a reasonable level is a level that is burned by the body without having a chronic excess. An acute excess can be stored, provided that mean intake is less than mean burning.
How COULD I write a post about LDL-P and forget to include THIS?

Friday, 12 September 2014

Neovascularization/Neovascularisation: It doesn't ONLY cause CHD.

Another serendipitous moment.
From http://www.aao.org/theeyeshaveit/optic-fundus/retinal-neovascularization.cfm
After talking to someone with Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD), I Googled the condition and spotted the word neovascularisation. This reminded me of Neovascularization of coronary tunica intima (DIT) is the cause of coronary atherosclerosis. Lipoproteins invade coronary intima via neovascularization from adventitial vasa vasorum, but not from the arterial lumen: a hypothesis.

So I did a search on PubMed for Neovascularization/Neovascularisation. This is what I got:-
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=%28%28%22neovascularization,%20pathologic%22[MeSH%20Terms]%20OR%20%28%22neovascularization%22[All%20Fields]%20AND%20%22pathologic%22[All%20Fields]%29%20OR%20%22pathologic%20neovascularization%22[All%20Fields]%20OR%20%22neovascularization%22[All%20Fields]%29%20OR%20%28%22neovascularization,%20pathologic%22[MeSH%20Terms]%20OR%20%28%22neovascularization%22[All%20Fields]%20AND%20%22pathologic%22[All%20Fields]%29%20OR%20%22pathologic%20neovascularization%22[All%20Fields]%20OR%20%22neovascularisation%22[All%20Fields]%29%29%20AND%20%28%28hasabstract[text]%20AND%20%22loattrfree%20full%20text%22[sb]%29%20AND%20%222009/09/14%22[PDAT]%20:%20%222014/09/12%22[PDAT]%20AND%20%22humans%22[MeSH%20Terms]%29%20AND%20%28hasabstract[text]%20AND%20%22loattrfree%20full%20text%22[sb]%29%20AND%20%222009/09/14%22[PDAT]%20:%20%222014/09/12%22[PDAT]%20AND%20%22humans%22[MeSH%20Terms]%20AND%20%28%28hasabstract[text]%20AND%20%22loattrfree%20full%20text%22[sb]%29%20AND%20%222009/09/14%22[PDAT]%20:%20%222014/09/12%22[PDAT]%20AND%20%22humans%22[MeSH%20Terms]%29%20AND%20%28%28hasabstract[text]%20AND%20%22loattrfree%20full%20text%22[sb]%29%20AND%20%222009/09/14%22[PDAT]%20:%20%222014/09/12%22[PDAT]%20AND%20%22humans%22[MeSH%20Terms]%29%20AND%20%28%28hasabstract[text]%20AND%20%22loattrfree%20full%20text%22[sb]%29%20AND%20%222009/09/14%22[PDat]%20:%20%222014/09/12%22[PDat]%20AND%20%22humans%22[MeSH%20Terms]%29

Even after restricting results, there were 5253 results. Wow!

It would appear that AMD has a lot in common with CHD. Ischaemia/Ischemia (lack of oxygen) to tissues causes the body to produce an adaptive response by growing new blood vessels (neovascularization/neovascularisation). Unfortunately, the new blood vessels are a bit crap, and cause other problems to develop e.g. CHD & AMD.

Therefore, prevention is better than cure. The things that lower the RR for CHD may also lower the RR for AMD. See Cholesterol And Coronary Heart Disease.

Saturday, 6 September 2014

Another penny drops: Why severe hyperinsulinamia can occur with a small increase in exogenous carbohydrate intake.

This blog post is a result of Vim's comments in the previous blog post. A penny suddenly dropped!
From http://bja.oxfordjournals.org/content/85/1/69.full

Insulin has a Chalonic (inhibitory) action on blood glucose level (via the liver, muscle mass & fat mass), blood FFA level (via fat mass) and blood ketone body level (via the liver).

As mentioned in the comments, GHB has a stimulant effect - up to a certain level of blood GHB. Beyond that level, there's a powerful sedative effect. This is because at low levels of exogenous ketone body input, insulin secretion increases slightly to reduce hepatic ketogenesis.

At a certain level of exogenous ketone body input, hepatic ketogenesis falls to zero and cannot be reduced any further. Any slight increase beyond this point in exogenous ketone body input, results in a large increase in insulin secretion, as the pancreas increases Ketone body-Stimulated Insulin Secretion to maximum in a (failed) attempt to reduce blood ketone body level.

Exactly the same thing happens with exogenous carbohydrate input.

At a certain level of exogenous carbohydrate input, hepatic glucogenesis falls to zero and cannot be reduced any further. Any slight increase beyond this point in exogenous carbohydrate input, results in a large increase in insulin secretion, as the pancreas increases Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion to maximum in a (failed) attempt to reduce blood glucose level.

Fun with maths: How many grams of "X" does it take to achieve "Y" mmol/L of "X" in the blood?

There are ≤3 fuels in blood - Glucose, Palmitic acid (FFA) & Beta-HydroxyButyric acid (Ketone body).
From http://www.medbio.info/horn/time%203-4/homeostasis1.htm#Sources%20of%20blood%20glucose:

Taking blood volume as 5L (a petite woman has less):-

5mmol/L of Glucose ≡ 4.5g of Glucose.

1mmol/L of Palmitic acid ≡ 1.28g of Palmitic acid.

6mmol/L of Beta-HydroxyButyric acid ≡ 3.12g of Beta-HydroxyButyric acid.

Instead of going on a ketogenic diet (with all of the health hazards associated with it), why not just add Beta-HydroxyButyric acid to your drinks?

There's a problem. All metabolic fuels produce an insulin response (from functioning pancreatic beta cells) - this is one of the ways the level of each fuel is regulated in a NFB loop. Therefore, drinking more than 3.12g of BHB (more than 2.76mL) produces a large insulin response, which results in sleepiness. Ditto for GHB.