Wheel nuts? I'm actually referring to Tight Junctions. As mentioned at the end of Wheat? Oh, dear! , 10% of the people who are healthy enough to donate blood have gut walls permeable enough to let gliadin fragments pass through. What about all of the people who aren't healthy enough to donate blood?
Tight junctions are important as they allow only small molecules to pass through. If you read Food Combining: What's THAT all about? , you'll see that during digestion, proteins are broken down into amino acids*. Amino acids are small enough to pass through tight junctions. Chains of amino acids larger than about 3 amino acids long are too big to pass through.
Carbohydrates are broken down into monosaccharides, which are small enough to pass through. Disaccharides are too large (except for Trehalose, which Jay Bryant told me about as a treatment for Alzheimer's Disease).
Fats are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids. Glycerol is small enough to pass through. Fatty acids and other fatty molecules such as Vitamin D, Co-enzyme Q10, Vitamin K2, curcumin, berberine etc are transported across.
The consequences of having loose junctions are not good. Stuff that's not supposed to get in to the circulation gets in and stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies. That in itself is not necessarily a problem, unless the stuff that the body has produced antibodies against happens to resemble parts of your own body.
Autoimmune diseases such as Coeliac Disease (gut), Eczema (skin), Dermatitis Herpetiformis (skin), Sjögrens Syndrome (mucous membranes), Cerebellar Ataxia (Purkinje cells in the brain), Multiple Sclerosis (myelin sheaths of nerves), Type 1 Diabetes (pancreatic beta cells), Rheumatoid Arthritis (joints), Asthma (lungs) etc are caused by the immune system mistakenly attacking body parts.
The other day, I found Immune response to dietary proteins, gliadin and cerebellar peptides in children with autism.
See also Stronger Intestinal Barrier May Prevent Cancer in the Rest of the Body, New Study Suggests.
So, how do we keep 'em tight? Here's a clue: Vitamin D.
EDIT: See also Dietary Fat Can Modulate Intestinal Tight Junction Integrity.
*EDIT: That's not exactly correct. See Physiology and Immunology of Digestion.
In other news....
I had a phone call from mum's GP this morning. Having read my evidence, he's agreed to test mum's serum B12, 25(OH)D and Calcium and give her supplements accordingly. He's also happy with me giving mum a Ketogenic diet and will also advise the nursing home to exercise mum as often as she is able. Result!
I put four cubes of liver pâté out for Sooty & Sweep (I don't know which one is which as they're identical) and a Magpie swiped two of them. We also have seagulls. I put the other two cubes out of sight in a box.
So far, so good!
P.S. What fuel can be extracted from decomposing seagulls?
Wait for it...
Petrel! (From Petrol Direct, a joke site in case anyone's wondering).