Thursday, 12 June 2014

Carbs, Carbs, Carbs, Carbs and Carbs.

Carbohydrates seem to get the blame for everything nowadays. "Carbohydrates made me fat". "Carbohydrates burned-out my pancreas". "Carbohydrates raised my blood glucose". "Carbohydrates raised my blood triglycerides". "Carbohydrates stole mer jerb!". O.K, I made the last one up!
If carbohydrates are responsible for all of these bad things, then how come a diet of only potatoes had the opposite effect? See 20 Potatoes a day.

Also, Blue Zone populations eat a diet with a high percentage of total energy (%E) from carbohydrates. See Low serum insulin in traditional Pacific Islanders--the Kitava Study and The Kitava Study. The Kitavans eat ~70%E from carbohydrates, ~20%E from fats and ~10%E from proteins. They don't eat a significant amount of Western crap-in-a-bag/box/bottle.

Maybe it has something to do with the type of carbohydrates and with what they're eaten. In A very-low-fat diet is not associated with improved lipoprotein profiles in men with a predominance of large, low-density lipoproteins , (emphasis, mine) "The very-low-fat, high-carbohydrate experimental diet was designed to supply less than 10% of energy from fat (2.7% saturated, 3.7% monounsaturated, and 2.6% polyunsaturated), with 75% from carbohydrate (with equal amounts of naturally occurring and added simple and complex carbohydrate) and 15% from protein." Simple carbohydrates are sugars.

The experimental diet which did bad things contained 37.5%E from sugars. I declare shenanigans!

1. There are simple carbs, there are simple carbs and there are simple carbs. In the previous post, the graph of plasma triglycerides after an OGTT showed that 100g of glucose had no significant effect on plasma triglycerides over a 6 hour period. If it had been 100g of fructose, there would have been a significant increase in plasma triglycerides. Galactose is taken-up by the liver and has minimal effect on blood glucose, but I don't know its effect on plasma triglycerides.

2. There are complex carbs, there are complex carbs and there are complex carbs. Overcooked starch is high in amylopectin which is highly-branched, which means that it hydrolyses rapidly into glucose which gives it a very high glycaemic index. Raw & refrigerated potato starches have very low glycaemic indices, due to the presence of amylose, or other resistant starches. Rice contains a mixture of starches which varies with rice type, cooking time and subsequent refrigeration.

3. There are oligosachharides e.g. FOS.

4. There are polysaccharides e.g. inulin.

5. There is soluble fibre/fiber e.g. cellulose.

Although overeating sugars containing fructose & starches that rapidly hydrolyse into glucose makes the liver fatty, overeating fats also makes the liver fatty. See Pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes: tracing the reverse route from cure to cause.

It's the chronic over-consumption of crap-in-a-bag/box/bottle (high in sugars and/or starches and/or fats), not just carbohydrates, that causes over-fatness and other health problems.


charles grashow said...

Haub's sample day

Espresso, Double: 6 calories; 0 grams of fat
Hostess Twinkies Golden Sponge Cake: 150 calories; 5 grams of fat
Centrum Advanced Formula From A To Zinc: 0 calories; 0 grams of fat
Little Debbie Star Crunch: 150 calories; 6 grams of fat
Hostess Twinkies Golden Sponge Cake: 150 calories; 5 grams of fat
Diet Mountain Dew: 0 calories; 0 grams of fat
Doritos Cool Ranch: 75 calories; 4 grams of fat
Kellogg's Corn Pops: 220 calories; 0 grams of fat
whole milk: 150 calories; 8 grams of fat
baby carrots: 18 calories; 0 grams of fat
Duncan Hines Family Style Brownie Chewy Fudge: 270 calories; 14 grams of fat
Little Debbie Zebra Cake: 160 calories; 8 grams of fat
Muscle Milk Protein Shake: 240 calories; 9 grams of fat
Totals: 1,589 calories and 59 grams of fat

His body mass index went from 28.8, considered overweight, to 24.9, which is normal. He now weighs 174 pounds.

But you might expect other indicators of health would have suffered. Not so.

Haub's"bad" cholesterol, or LDL, dropped 20 percent and his "good"
cholesterol, or HDL, increased by 20 percent. He reduced the level of
triglycerides, which are a form of fat, by 39 percent.

charles grashow said...
Postprandial Lipoproteins: The storm after the
Part 1 - Fats

charles grashow said...

Will you post the questions and his reply?

Nigel Kinbrum said...

I wasn't planning to.

charles grashow said...

Was it of any interest - I'm curious

charles grashow said...
What Is the Significance of Postprandial Triglycerides Compared With Fasting Triglycerides?

Nigel Kinbrum said...

Did you click the link I posted?

charles grashow said...

Nigel Kinbrum said...

Thanks. When I get back from tonight's jam session, I'll insert these links into the "Good, Bad, Ugly" post.