"Our structural VAR results suggest that, on the margin, a 1% increase in carbohydrates intake yields a 1.01 point increase in obesity prevalence over 5 years while an equal percent increase in fat intake decreases obesity prevalence by 0.24 points."
So, carbohydrates are fattening but fat is slimming, eh? I declare shenanigans! Two can play at that game.
In Effect of Dietary Protein Content on Weight Gain, Energy Expenditure, and Body Composition During Overeating, Bray et al increased kcals by 40% by adding Fat grams. Carb grams didn't change. Protein grams changed a bit. ∴ Protein %E & Carb %E decreased by ~29%. %E means "as a percentage of total Energy".
Weight (lean body mass + body fat) increased as Fat kcals increased ± some interpersonal variation.
|From Fig. 6.|
_Decreased P %E & C %E result in increased weight.
∴ Increased P %E & C %E result in decreased weight.
∴ Fat is fattening, but Protein & Carbohydrate is slimming! Q.E.D.
Do you see what's going on? Here's a summary:-
Diet contains A, B and C.
The amount of A increases, but the amounts of B and C remain constant.
A%E increases, but B%E and C%E decrease.
In Riera-Crichton et al, A = Carbohydrate, B = Fat and C = Protein.
In Bray et al, A = Fat, B = Carbohydrate and C = Protein.