Tuesday, 30 March 2010

Wheat? Oh, dear!

Someone on the BBC Healthy eating food board recently asked about gut problems brought on by eating wheat so I decided to have a rummage through some of the blogs that I read, searching for "wheat". This is what I found. Updating this post may be a never-ending task!

The Heart Scan Blog:
Are you a skinny fat person? , Blood pressure with exercise , Low-fat diets raise triglycerides , American Heart Association stamp of approval , The wheat-free life , Wheat belly , Oat vs. wheat , Sugar for breakfast , Niacin and blood sugar , When niacin doesn't work , Wacky statin effects , Success--Slow but sure , Wheat-free and weight loss , The small LDL epidemic , Wheat and the hunger factor , Niacin vs. low-carb weight loss , Appetite stimulants , The many faces of LDL , Triglyceride traps , No-flush niacin kills , Low-carb eating for diabetes , Wheat-free is not gluten-free , "I gained 30 lbs from one cracker" , Wheat addiction: 140 lbs lost , Wheat withdrawal , "I lost 30 lbs and my triglycerides went . . . up?" , Vitamin D and HDL , Triglycerides divided by five , What's worse than sugar? , Are you wheat-free? , Wheat withdrawal: How common? , Quieting the insulin storm , Nutritional approaches: Large vs. small LDL , Can CRP be reduced? , The Wheat Deficiency Syndrome , Flush-free niacin kills , Flat tummy . . . or, Why your dietitian is fat , Thiazide diuretics: Treatment of choice for high blood pressure? , How to Give Yourself Hashimoto's Thyroiditis: 101 , CIS: Carbohydrate intolerance syndrome , Dr. Michael Eades on the Paleolithic diet , Wheat hell , Can millet make you diabetic? , Wheat Belly Revisited , Cholesterol effects of carbohydrates , Blast small LDL to oblivion , "Hey buddy, wanna buy some exorphins?" , Triglyceride Buster-Update , The statin-free life , Goodbye, fructose , Who lost weight? , Weight loss and vitamin D , Why obese people can't fast , Unexpected effects of a wheat-free diet , Name that food , Why does fish oil reduce triglycerides? , The disastrous results of a low-fat diet , The Paleo approach to meal frequency , Track Your Plaque challenges , Small LDL: Perfect index of carbohydrate intake , This is your brain on wheat , To track small LDL, track blood sugar , If you take niacin, you must exercise , A wheat-free 2010 , De Novo Lipo-what? , Look like Jimmy Stewart , To get low-carb right, you need to check blood sugars , More on blood sugar , Diabetes from fruit , Blood sugar: Fasting vs. postprandial , Is glycemic index irrelevant? , Saturated fat and large LDL , Genetic vs. lifestyle small LDL , "I dream about bread" , Psssst . . . There's sugar in there , Timing of blood sugars , Fat Head, Wheat belly, and the Adventures of Ancel Keys , Normal fasting glucose with high HbA1c , Slash carbs . . . What happens? , LDL glycation , Rerun: To let low-carb right, you must check POSTPRANDIAL blood sugars , What to Eat: The diet is defined by small LDL , Small LDL: Simple vs. complex carbohydrates , Man walks after removing wheat , Glycemic gobbledygook , Blame the gluten? , Emmer, einkorn, and agribusiness , Super-carbohydrate , In search of wheat , Low-carb gynecologist , Ezekiel said what? , In search of wheat: We bake einkorn bread , In search of wheat: Einkorn and blood sugar , Wheat aftermath , In search of wheat: Another einkorn experience , In search of wheat: Emmer , Life without Lipitor , How to have a heart attack in 10 easy steps , To lose weight, prick your finger , Carbohydrate-LDL double whammy , China fiction? , What increases blood sugar more than wheat? , LDL pattern B , This is your brain on wheat II , Men's lingerie is on the second floor , Wheat hip , What's for breakfast? , Extreme carbohydrate intolerance , Homegrown osteoporosis prevention and reversal , Can I stop my Coumadin? , Surviving a widow maker , Let go of my love handles , Human foie gras , Bosom buddies , Noodles without the headaches , Einkorn now in Whole Foods , The Anti-AGEing Diet , New Track Your Plaque record! , Dwarf mutant wheat , Can I see your linea alba? , Why do morphine-blocking drugs make you lose weight? , Why does wheat cause arthritis? , Statin buster? , Wheat one-liners , Put lipstick on a dwarf , Wheat-free pie crust , Do your part to save on healthcare costs , Wheat-free pumpkin bread , The two kinds of small LDL , I lost 37 lbs with a fingerstick , Genetic incompatibility , Is einkorn the answer? , A glycation rock and a hard place , No more cookies , High blood pressure vanquished , Thirteen catheterizations later , The five most powerful heart disease prevention strategies , Heroin, Oxycontin, and a whole wheat bagel , What do Salmonella, E coli, and bread have in common? , Diarrhea, asthma, arthritis--What is your wheat re-exposure syndrome? , The perfect Frankengrain , Diarrhea, runny noses, and rage: Poll results , Why is type 1 diabetes on the rise? , Construct your glucose curve , 90% small LDL: Good news, bad news , Be gluten-free without "gluten-free" , Wheat brain , Don’t wet yourself , Have some more , Bet you can’t fast , and so on...
Do you get the impression that Dr Davis really has it in for wheat?
EDIT: Now that Dr Davis has changed the site's url, most of the above links no longer take you to the right place. I'm not updating them!

Dr John Briffa's Blog:
Understanding Food Cravings , Dealing With Childhood Ear Infections , Does Fibre Protect Us From Colon Cancer? , Natural cures for migraine , Natural approaches to asthma , Natural approaches to eczema , Dietary approaches to autism , Why a lot of breakfast fodder are nothing but cereal killers , Why eating a grain-based diet will do nothing for your ‘vitality’ , Natural approaches to arthritis , Avoiding certain foods can really help the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) , Could vinegar actually reduce the tendency of certain foods to cause weight gain? , Practical advice for those wanting to construct healthy lunchboxes for their kids , Older dads at risk of fathering autistic children – and the diet that can help those affected by this condition , Jamie Oliver calls parents “tossers” for putting sh*t in their kids’ lunchboxes. Do healthy packed lunch options exist? , Are wholegrain breakfast cereals really good for the heart? , Men with migraine found to be at increased risk of heart attack , What really causes irritable bowel syndrome? , Health professionals ignore their patients at their, and their patients’, peril , Probiotics found to be helpful for sufferers of IBS , Peppermint oil comes out top in review of treatments for IBS , BMJ letter reminds doctors of limitations of science and the importance of clinical experience , Just because someone doesn’t have coeliac disease, doesn’t mean they don’t have a problem with gluten , Can wheat cause diabetes? , What is food combining good for? , Rye bread helps relieve constipation, and other tips for bowel regularity , Gluten and milk linked with constipation in kids , My advice for those looking to have an energised and productive afternoon , ‘Food for Thought’ – nutritional advice for those preparing for and taking exams , Why we can’t rely on epidemiological evidence , Think bran is good for the bowels? Think again , Antiobiotic found to relieve IBS, and what might work better , New study shows that it’s possible to react to gluten but not have coeliac disease
Ditto for Dr Briffa.

PāNu Weblog:
6s and 3s and the logic of grain avoidance , The Argument Against Cereal Grains , 1) Eliminate sugar and refined carbohydrates like white flour. , Where are all the healthy whole grains? , Avoid Poison or Neutralize It? , The argument against cereal grains II , 12 Steps update Mar 2010 , The China Study - Polish a turd and find a diamond? , Statins and the Cholesterol Hypothesis – Part I , N = 1? , More N = 1 , FODMAPs , No Such thing as a macronutrient part II - Carbohydrates (revised) , Thoughts on Ketosis - I , William Munny eats his vegetables , Polyphenol Hormesis follow-up ,
Ditto for Dr Harris.

Whole Health Source:
Ischemic Heart Attacks: Disease of Civilization , Paleolithic Diet Clinical Trials Part IV , Dr. Rosedale Replies , The Body Fat Setpoint, Part IV: Changing the Setpoint , Interesting Articles in the AJCN , Grains as Food: an Update , Traditional Preparation Methods Improve Grains' Nutritive Value , Fermented Grain Recipes from Around the World , China Study Problems of Interpretation , Real Food XI: Sourdough Buckwheat Crepes , Can a Statin Neutralize the Cardiovascular Risk of Unhealthy Dietary Choices? , Dr. Mellanby's Tooth Decay Reversal Diet , Paleolithic Diet Clinical Trials, Part V , Eating Wheat Gluten Causes Symptoms in Some People Who Don't Have Celiac Disease , Blinded Wheat Challenge , Assorted Thoughts About the 2010 Dietary Guidelines , My Gluten-Free January , Gluten-Free January Survey Data, Part II: Health Effects of a Gluten-Free Diet

Food Pyramids, food and pyramids , Heroin and IBS , Niacin and adrenochrome , How toxic is wheat? , Gluten ataxia , Essential fatty acids are essential , Wheat and lactose , Casein vs gluten , Wheat and lactose and Cordain , Fiber, inulin and cancer , Gluten and rheumatoid arthritis , Weight loss; when it's hard , Casein, gluten and gastric pH , Gluten: Does coeliac disease require an infection? , Wheat Germ Agglutinin; how little is enough? , Wheat and lactase

Cooling Inflammation:
Cure Acne, Back Pain, Tendonitis, Depression , Anti-inflammatory, Gluten-Free Diet for Celiac , Arthritis, Autoimmunity and Arginine Deimidation

Raw Food SOS:
The China Study, Wheat, and Heart Disease; Oh My!

Perfect Health Diet:
Category Archives: Autoimmune

The above makes my criticisms of over-refined wheat products seem rather tame. See also The problem with "Whole Grain" cereals etc , I am NOT the anti-carb! and Anthony Colpo's The Whole Grain Scam.

From Ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, and anti-gliadin antibody. Guilt by association?

"However, anti-gliadin antibodies lack disease specificity being found in 10% of healthy blood donors."

10% of the population that are healthy enough to donate blood have gut walls permeable enough to let fragments of gliadin pass through. Hmmm. If fragments of gliadin can pass through, maybe fragments of other hard-to-digest proteins can, too (e.g. casein).

Thursday, 25 March 2010

Vitamin D3: Studies from 2005 to present.

I had a rummage through PubMed looking for editorials, meta-studies & human Randomised Controlled Trials on Vitamin D and Vitamin D3 from 2005 to present. Here is a selection (mostly using reasonable doses) that weren't previously mentioned in my Vitamin D blog. They are, now!

The Role of Vitamin D in Cancer Prevention
Estimates of optimal vitamin D status.
Prevalence of Vitamin D inadequacy among postmenopausal North American women receiving osteoporosis therapy.
Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
The re-emerging burden of rickets: a decade of experience from Sydney.
An excess of widespread pain among South Asians: are low levels of vitamin D implicated?
Vitamin D is associated with improved survival in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Vitamin D and prevention of colorectal cancer.
Should older people in residential care receive vitamin D to prevent falls? Results of a randomized trial.
Effect of vitamin D replacement on musculoskeletal parameters in school children: a randomized controlled trial.
Effect of cholecalciferol plus calcium on falling in ambulatory older men and women: a 3-year randomized controlled trial.
Vitamin D supplementation improves cytokine profiles in patients with congestive heart failure: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes.
Risk factors for vitamin D inadequacy among women with osteoporosis: an international epidemiological study.
A system for improving vitamin D nutrition in residential care.
Impact of dietary and lifestyle on vitamin D in healthy student girls aged 11-15 years.
How much vitamin D3 do the elderly need?
Lower levels of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D among young adults at diagnosis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes compared with control subjects: results from the nationwide Diabetes Incidence Study in Sweden (DISS).
A meta-analysis of second cancers after a diagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer: additional evidence that solar ultraviolet-B irradiance reduces the risk of internal cancers.
Risk assessment for vitamin D.
Supplementation with calcium + vitamin D enhances the beneficial effect of weight loss on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations.
Serum 25(OH)D levels, dietary intake of vitamin D, and colorectal adenoma recurrence.
The effects of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on blood glucose and markers of inflammation in nondiabetic adults.
Optimal vitamin D status for colorectal cancer prevention: a quantitative meta analysis.
A higher dose of vitamin d reduces the risk of falls in nursing home residents: a randomized, multiple-dose study.
Potentially modifiable determinants of vitamin D status in an older population in the Netherlands: the Hoorn Study.
Fracture prevention with vitamin D supplementation: considering the inconsistent results.
A prospective study of plasma vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D receptor polymorphisms, and prostate cancer.
The role of vitamin D and calcium in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis.
A single dose of vitamin D enhances immunity to mycobacteria.
Does solar exposure, as indicated by the non-melanoma skin cancers, protect from solid cancers: vitamin D as a possible explanation.
Vitamin D intake and breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study.
Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial.
Bone mineral density and bone markers in patients with a recent low-energy fracture: effect of 1 y of treatment with calcium and vitamin D.
Vitamin D deficiency in multicultural primary care: a case series of 299 patients.
Vitamin D supplementation and total mortality: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Efficacy of different doses and time intervals of oral vitamin D supplementation with or without calcium in elderly nursing home residents.
Vitamin D status and response to Vitamin D(3) in obese vs. non-obese African American children.
Vitamin D and skin physiology: a D-lightful story.
Additive benefit of higher testosterone levels and vitamin D plus calcium supplementation in regard to fall risk reduction among older men and women.
Rapid correction of low vitamin D status in nursing home residents.
Effects of a long-term vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls and parameters of muscle function in community-dwelling older individuals.
Prevalence of vitamin d insufficiency in patients with Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease.
Exploration of association of 1,25-OH2D3 with augmentation index, a composite measure of arterial stiffness.
Vitamin D and prevention of colorectal adenoma: a meta-analysis.
The tolerability and biochemical effects of high-dose bolus vitamin D2 and D3 supplementation in patients with vitamin D insufficiency.
Administration of oral vitamin D induces cathelicidin production in atopic individuals.
Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in healthy adults.
Changes in 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 to oral treatment with vitamin D3 in postmenopausal females with osteoporosis.
Vitamin D or hormone D deficiency in autoimmune rheumatic diseases, including undifferentiated connective tissue disease.
High-dose oral vitamin D3 supplementation in the elderly.
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the short-term effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on insulin sensitivity in apparently healthy, middle-aged, centrally obese men.
Vitamin D deficiency in older men.
Serum vitamin D and risk of pancreatic cancer in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian screening trial.
Vitamin D supplementation during Antarctic winter.
Vitamin D insufficiency and treatment with oral vitamin D3 in northern-dwelling patients with chronic kidney disease.
Long-term effects of giving nursing home residents bread fortified with 125 microg (5000 IU) vitamin D(3) per daily serving.
Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on markers of apoptosis in normal colon mucosa: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Estimation of the dietary requirement for vitamin D in free-living adults >=64 y of age.
Vitamin D supplementation enhances the beneficial effects of weight loss on cardiovascular disease risk markers.
Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and metabolic syndrome among middle-aged and elderly Chinese individuals.
Meta-analysis: longitudinal studies of serum vitamin D and colorectal cancer risk.
Effect of vitamin D supplementation in the institutionalized elderly.
Calcitriol ointment 3 microg/g is safe and effective over 52 weeks for the treatment of mild to moderate plaque psoriasis.
Association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and cognitive performance in middle-aged and older European men.
Low parathyroid hormone levels in bedridden geriatric patients with vitamin D deficiency.
Increased levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D after rosuvastatin treatment: a novel pleiotropic effect of statins?
Effect of vitamin D deficiency and replacement on endothelial function in asymptomatic subjects.
Vitamin D and depressive symptoms in women during the winter: a pilot study.
Treatment of vitamin D deficiency increases lower limb muscle strength in institutionalized older people independently of regular physical activity: a randomized double-blind controlled trial.
Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older European men.
Vitamin D supplementation reduces insulin resistance in South Asian women living in New Zealand who are insulin resistant and vitamin D deficient - a randomised, placebo-controlled trial.
Fall prevention with supplemental and active forms of vitamin D: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
Meta-analysis of vitamin D, calcium and the prevention of breast cancer.
Effects of vitamin d and calcium on proliferation and differentiation in normal colon mucosa: a randomized clinical trial.
Combination of alfacalcidol with calcium can improve quadriceps muscle strength in elderly ambulatory Thai women who have hypovitaminosis D: a randomized controlled trial.
Vitamin D(3) induces expression of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide 18 in newborns.
Levels of vitamin D and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis.
No significant effect on bone mineral density by high doses of vitamin D3 given to overweight subjects for one year.
Effects of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on oxidative DNA damage marker in normal colorectal mucosa: a randomized clinical trial.
Vitamin D levels, lung function, and steroid response in adult asthma.
Association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration and risk of colorectal cancer in European populations:a nested case-control study.
Pandemic preparedness for swine flu influenza in the United States.
Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren.
Vitamin D supplementation suppresses age-induced bone turnover in older women who are vitamin D deficient.
Suppression of C-terminal telopeptide in hypovitaminosis D requires calcium as well as vitamin D.
A phase I/II dose-escalation trial of vitamin D3 and calcium in multiple sclerosis.
Milk fortified with the current adequate intake for vitamin D (5 microg) increases serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D compared to control milk but is not sufficient to prevent a seasonal decline in young women.
Vitamin D-vitamin K interaction: effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum percentage undercarboxylated osteocalcin, a sensitive measure of vitamin K status, in Danish girls.
Vitamin D status and impact of vitamin D3 and/or calcium supplementation in a randomized pilot study in the Southeastern United States.
Calcium/vitamin D supplementation and coronary artery calcification in the Women's Health Initiative.
Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of pancreatic cancer: Cohort Consortium Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers.*
A 16-week randomized clinical trial of 2000 international units daily vitamin D3 supplementation in black youth: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, adiposity, and arterial stiffness.
The effect of narrowband UV-B treatment for psoriasis on vitamin D status during wintertime in Ireland.
Effects of vitamin D supplementation to children diagnosed with pneumonia in Kabul: a randomised controlled trial.
Dairy calcium intake, serum vitamin D, and successful weight loss.
Atorvastatin increases 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.
A randomized controlled trial of the effects of vitamin D on muscle strength and mobility in older women with vitamin D insufficiency.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration is associated with functional capacity in older adults with heart failure.
Effect of vitamin D supplementation on testosterone levels in men.
Vitamin D production depends on ultraviolet-B dose but not on dose rate: a randomized controlled trial.
Vitamin D(3) is more potent than vitamin D(2) in humans.
Nutrients and foods for the primary prevention of asthma and allergy: systematic review and meta-analysis.
High-dose vitamin D(3) during intensive-phase antimicrobial treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.
Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and frailty in older men: the osteoporotic fractures in men study.
Association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and mortality in the critically ill.
Effects of vitamin D supplementation on 25-hydroxyvitamin D, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and other cardiovascular disease risk markers in subjects with elevated waist circumference.
Changes in balance, functional performance and fall risk following whole body vibration training and vitamin D supplementation in institutionalized elderly women. A 6 month randomized controlled trial.
Diet induced thermogenesis, fat oxidation and food intake following sequential meals: influence of calcium and vitamin D.
The response of elderly veterans to daily vitamin D3 supplementation of 2,000 IU: a pilot efficacy study.
Meta-analysis: Circulating vitamin D and ovarian cancer risk.
Relation of vitamin D level to maximal oxygen uptake in adults.
Vitamin D status in patients with stage IV colorectal cancer: findings from Intergroup trial N9741.
Circulating levels of vitamin D and colon and rectal cancer: the Physicians' Health Study and a meta-analysis of prospective studies.
Burning daylight: balancing vitamin D requirements with sensible sun exposure.
Relationships between vitamin D status and cardio-metabolic risk factors in young European adults.
Latitude is significantly associated with the prevalence of multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis.
Vitamin D status and early age-related macular degeneration in postmenopausal women.
Vitamin D and clinical disease progression in HIV infection: results from the EuroSIDA study.
Annual high-dose vitamin D3 and mental well-being: randomised controlled trial.
Vitamin D status and outcomes in heart failure patients.
The impact of vitamin D status on periodontal surgery outcomes.
The role of paricalcitol on proteinuria.
Effects of weight loss on serum vitamin D in postmenopausal women.
Vitamin D status and mortality risk in CKD: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.
Vitamin D intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US men and women.
Meta-analysis: Serum vitamin D and colorectal adenoma risk.
Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer: post hoc analyses of the women's health initiative randomized controlled trial.
Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on pancreatic β cell function, insulin sensitivity, and glycemia in adults at high risk of diabetes: the Calcium and Vitamin D for Diabetes Mellitus (CaDDM) randomized controlled trial.
Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in adults.
The effect of calcium plus vitamin D on risk for invasive cancer: results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) calcium plus vitamin D randomized clinical trial.
New clinical trials with vitamin D and analogs in renal disease.
The relation between vitamin D deficiency and fibromyalgia syndrome in women.
Interventions for latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA) in adults.
Calcium and vitamin D supplementation is associated with decreased abdominal visceral adipose tissue in overweight and obese adults.
Effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle strength, gait and balance in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Vitamin D3 and the risk of CVD in overweight and obese women: a randomised controlled trial.
Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with increased mortality in female nursing home residents.
Improvement of vitamin D status resulted in amelioration of biomarkers of systemic inflammation in the subjects with type 2 diabetes.
Vitamin D supplementation in infants with chronic congestive heart failure.
Vitamin D reduces musculoskeletal pain after infusion of zoledronic acid for postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Consumption of vitamin D-and calcium-fortified soft white cheese lowers the biochemical marker of bone resorption TRAP 5b in postmenopausal women at moderate risk of osteoporosis fracture.
Vitamin D improves viral response in hepatitis C genotype 2-3 naïve patients.
Vitamin D supplementation in the treatment of atopic dermatitis: a clinical trial study.
Effect of vitamin D repletion on urinary calcium excretion among kidney stone formers.
25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels and the risk of stroke: a prospective study and meta-analysis.
Improvement of vitamin D status via daily intake of fortified yogurt drink either with or without extra calcium ameliorates systemic inflammatory biomarkers, including adipokines, in the subjects with type 2 diabetes.
Treatment of vitamin D insufficiency in children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease: a randomized clinical trial comparing three regimens.
Therapeutic effects of calcium & vitamin D supplementation in women with PCOS.
Higher vitamin D dietary intake is associated with lower risk of alzheimer's disease: a 7-year follow-up.
Vitamin D3 supplementation at 4000 international units per day for one year results in a decrease of positive cores at repeat biopsy in subjects with low-risk prostate cancer under active surveillance.
Comparison of narrowband ultraviolet B exposure and oral vitamin D substitution on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration.
The relation between sunscreen layer thickness and vitamin D production after ultraviolet B exposure: a randomized clinical trial.
Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and the risk of type 2 diabetes: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort and updated meta-analysis of prospective studies.
Vitamin D3 therapy corrects the tissue sensitivity to angiotensin ii akin to the action of a converting enzyme inhibitor in obese hypertensives: an interventional study.
The effect of combined calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation on bone mineral density in elderly women with moderate chronic kidney disease.
Comparison of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 supplementation in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Relative effectiveness of oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and vitamin D3 in raising wintertime serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in older adults.
Vitamin D supplementation and depression in the women's health initiative calcium and vitamin D trial.
Vitamin D with calcium reduces mortality: patient level pooled analysis of 70,528 patients from eight major vitamin D trials.
An open label, randomized controlled study of oral calcitriol for the treatment of proteinuria in patients with diabetic kidney disease.
Ergocalciferol from mushrooms or supplements consumed with a standard meal increases 25-hydroxyergocalciferol but decreases 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the serum of healthy adults.
Narrowband ultraviolet B three times per week is more effective in treating vitamin D deficiency than 1600 IU oral vitamin D₃ per day: a randomized clinical trial.
Vitamin D intake is inversely related to risk of developing metabolic syndrome in African American and white men and women over 20 y: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.
Vitamin D and gestational diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and weight gain in elderly women.
Effect of cholecalciferol as adjunctive therapy with insulin on protective immunologic profile and decline of residual β-cell function in new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus.
A pooled analysis of vitamin D dose requirements for fracture prevention.
Determinants and effects of vitamin D supplementation on serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Vitamin D is a major determinant of bone mineral density at school age.
Effect of vitamin D and inhaled corticosteroid treatment on lung function in children.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and D2 and non-clinical psychotic experiences in childhood.
Vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal, healthy women predicts increased cardiovascular events: a 16-year follow-up study.
Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation and risk of acute respiratory infection in Mongolia.
25-hydroxyvitamin d levels and risk of ischemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, and early death: population-based study and meta-analyses of 18 and 17 studies.
Association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and acute kidney injury in the critically ill.
A 12-week double-blind randomized clinical trial of vitamin D₃ supplementation on body fat mass in healthy overweight and obese women.
Circulating 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and risk of cardiovascular disease: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.
Relation of severe deficiency of vitamin D to cardiovascular mortality during acute coronary syndromes.
Vitamin D reduces left atrial volume in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy and chronic kidney disease.
Interventions for preventing falls in older people in care facilities and hospitals.
Vitamin D and risk of death from vascular and non-vascular causes in the Whitehall study and meta-analyses of 12,000 deaths.
Calcium plus vitamin D3 supplementation facilitated fat loss in overweight and obese college students with very-low calcium consumption: a randomized controlled trial.
Randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplement on endothelial function in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Effect of vitamin D supplementation on progression of knee pain and cartilage volume loss in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.
Lipoprotein lipase links vitamin D, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional epidemiological study.
The effect of different doses of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance during pregnancy.
Vitamin D and dental caries in controlled clinical trials: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Vitamin D deficiency and depression in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Improving the vitamin D status of vitamin D deficient adults is associated with improved mitochondrial oxidative function in skeletal muscle.
Low 25-OH vitamin D is associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Correcting vitamin D insufficiency improves insulin sensitivity in obese adolescents: a randomized controlled trial.
Vitamin D levels in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases: a meta-analysis.
Supplemental vitamin D and physical performance in COPD: a pilot randomized trial.
Vitamin D and risk of future hypertension: meta-analysis of 283,537 participants.
Randomized clinical trial of vitamin D3 doses on prostatic vitamin D metabolite levels and ki67 labeling in prostate cancer patients.
Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in Parkinson disease.
Anti-inflammatory effect of vitamin D on gingivitis: a dose-response randomised control trial.
Role of vitamin D in children with respiratory tract infection.
Effect of vitamin D supplementation and ultraviolet B exposure on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized, crossover clinical trial.
Vitamin D and multiple sclerosis: what is the clinical impact?
Is hypovitaminosis D associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm, and is there a dose-response relationship?
Plasma vitamin D levels, menopause, and risk of breast cancer: dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.
Impact of vitamin D on chronic kidney diseases in non-dialysis patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and the risk of depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
The effect of vitamin D-related interventions on multiple sclerosis relapses: a meta-analysis.
Vitamin D status and physical function in nursing home residents: a 1-year observational study.
Maternal vitamin D status and risk of pre-eclampsia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Meta-analysis: vitamin D and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.
Treatment with oral active vitamin D is associated with decreased risk of peritonitis and improved survival in patients on peritoneal dialysis.
Vitamin D supplementation affects serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, insulin resistance, and biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnant women.
The role of vitamin D supplementation in the risk of developing pneumonia: three independent case-control studies.
Short-term vitamin D3 supplementation lowers plasma renin activity in patients with stable chronic heart failure: an open-label, blinded end point, randomized prospective trial (VitD-CHF trial).
Vitamin D and psychosis: mini meta-analysis.
Meta-analysis of memory and executive dysfunctions in relation to vitamin D.
Vitamin D intake and lung cancer risk in the Women's Health Initiative.
Association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and sepsis in the critically ill.
Vitamin D favorably alters the cancer promoting prostaglandin cascade.
Vitamin D intake and risk of type 1 diabetes: a meta-analysis of observational studies.
Effect of vitamin D supplementation on antibiotic use: a randomized controlled trial.
Effects of vitamin D supplementation on glucose metabolism, lipid concentrations, inflammation, and oxidative stress in gestational diabetes: a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial.
Improvement in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in argentine Indian school children after vitamin D supplementation.
Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of mortality in adults.
Beneficial role for supplemental vitamin D3 treatment in chronic urticaria: a randomized study.
Vitamin D3 supplementation during weight loss: a double-blind randomized controlled trial.
Vitamin D and risk of cause specific death: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational cohort and randomised intervention studies.

*See Vitamin D and UV fluctuations for an explanation.

Phew! That's a bit more than I expected.

If you fancy doing a search yourself, click on PubMed.

Tuesday, 23 March 2010

Whatever happened to...Lapaquistat?

By now, you've probably noticed that I'm a bit anti-statin. The "problem" with statins is that they reduce cholesterol synthesis in the liver by reducing the conversion of HydroxyMethylGlutarate (HMG) Co-enzyme A (CoA) into Mevalonate by inhibiting the enzyme HMG CoA reductase.

Reducing Mevalonate reduces lots of other things e.g. Coenzyme Q10 synthesis, terpenoid synthesis, protein prenylation, cell membrane maintenance, hormones, protein anchoring, N-glycosylation and steroid biosynthesis which leads to cholesterol synthesis. Paradoxically, although cholesterol synthesis is reduced, Vitamin D level is increased. See also Atorvastatin increases 25-hydroxy vitamin D concentrations in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Some of the above changes are undesirable in terms of all-cause mortality, so what would be ideal is a drug that just reduces serum cholesterol without doing anything else. Enter....Squalestatin a.k.a. Zaragozic Acid. This reduces the conversion of Farnesyl Pyrophosphate into Squalene by inhibiting the enzyme Squalene synthase. This has no effect on Mevalonate, or any of the substances listed in the above paragraph. Perfect!

A Squalene synthase inhibitor called Lapaquistat (a.k.a. TAK-475) was developed and tested by Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited in 2008. So, why is this wonder drug not on the market today? According to Limited press release - Discontinuation of Development of TAK-475, A Compound for Treatment of Hypercholesterolemia:- " the profile of the compound is not superior to existing marketed drugs from both efficacy and safety viewpoints".

So, just reducing serum cholesterol without changing anything else is not superior to reducing serum cholesterol and changing loads of other things. Maybe statins reduce CHD mortality a bit because they change loads of other things, not because they reduce serum cholesterol. See Rosuvastatin to Prevent Vascular Events in Men and Women with Elevated C-Reactive Protein.

Statins are anti-inflammatory. So is Vitamin D3. I'd take Vitamin D3 instead of statins any day.