|Soak & cook your own beans al-dente, for slowest release carbs.|
It's often claimed that non-nutritive sweeteners produce a cephalic phase insulin response. The mere anticipation of eating produces a cephalic phase insulin response. See How neural mediation of anticipatory and compensatory insulin release helps us tolerate food. An insulin response suppresses serum NEFAs, so it's not all bad.
Sugars and Sugar alcohols:
Fructose is not recommended for people with T2DM, as it "barges its way" into the liver via Glu-T5 and fructokinase. People with T2DM who have a high fasting serum glucose level almost certainly already have full liver glycogen stores, so adding to them isn't advisable. Whole fruits (not juices) are fine.
Lactose has a virtually zero GL, isn't very sweet and has/hasn't a laxative effect in large quantities (lactase-dependent). Heating lactose turns it into lactulose.
Lactulose has a virtually zero GI, is sweet and has a laxative effect in large quantities.
Galactose is not recommended, as large amounts may accelerate ageing.
D-mannose has a virtually zero GI, is sweet and doesn't have a laxative effect in large quantities. It can be used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by e.coli, due to the fact that the kidneys filter it out of the blood and pass it out in the urine. Mannose in urine reduces the adhesion of e.coli to the inside wall of the urinary tract. See Intervening with urinary tract infections using anti-adhesives based on the crystal structure of the FimH-oligomannose-3 complex.
Trehalose has a virtually zero/moderate GI, is sweet and has/hasn't a laxative effect in large quantities (trehalase-dependent).
Lactitol has a virtually zero GI and has a laxative effect in large quantities.
Sorbitol has a virtually zero GI and has a laxative effect in large quantities.
Xylitol has a virtually zero GI, minty overtones and reduces dental plaque. However, it has a laxative effect in large quantities.
Erythritol has a virtually zero GI, minty overtones and is wee'ed-out like D-mannose, so it doesn't have a laxative effect in large quantities.
Note: Tinned starches are usually overcooked, so cook your own. Don't overcook starches, as that makes them faster-absorbing. Al dente is best.
Gram dhal a.k.a. chana dal.
Long-grain rice. Refrigerating boiled rice for 24 hours lowers the GL, by forming resistant starch. See item 275 in the table in the first link.
New potatoes. Refrigerating boiled new potatoes for 24 hours lowers the GL a lot, by forming resistant starch. See item 605 in the table in the first link. You can boil old potatoes, but they're probably not as good.
Starchy nuts e.g. peanuts , cashews and chestnuts.
If even low-GL carbs spike BG too much, this indicates severe IR in liver and/or skeletal muscle. See Insulin Resistance: Solutions to problems.
The above lists also apply to people with T1DM who are having difficulty keeping their blood glucose level between 3 and 7mmol/L.